Water — Specific Gravity

Measuring Density

Thermodynamics | Engineering Physics
Engineering Hydraulics

The following is engineering properties of water

Dynamic viscosity of water

The dynamic viscosity of water is 8.90 × 10−4 Pa·s or 8.90 × 10−3 dyn·s/cm2 or 0.890 cP at about 25 °C.

Water has a viscosity of 0.0091 poise at 25 °C, or 1 centipoise at 20 °C.

As a function of temperature T (K): (Pa·s) = A × 10B/(TC)

where A=2.414 × 10−5 Pa·s ; B = 247.8 K ; and C = 140 K.Viscosity of liquid water at different temperatures up to the normal boiling point is listed below.

10

1.308

20

1.002

30

0.7978

40

0.6531

50

0.5471

60

0.4658

70

0.4044

80

0.3550

90

0.3150

100

0.2822

Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity of Water in Imperial Units (BG units):

Temperature
— t —
(°F)

Dynamic Viscosity
— µ —
(lb s/ft2) x 10-5

Kinematic Viscosity
-ν —
(ft2/s) x 10-5

32

3.732

1.924

40

3.228

1.664

50

2.730

1.407

60

2.344

1.210

70

2.034

1.052

80

1.791

0.926

90

1.500

0.823

100

1.423

0.738

120

1.164

0.607

140

0.974

0.511

160

0.832

0.439

180

0.721

0.383

200

0.634

0.339

212

0.589

0.317

Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity of Water in SI Units:

Temperature
— t —
(°C)

Dynamic Viscosity
— µ —
(N s/m2) x 10-3

Kinematic Viscosity
-ν —
(m2/s) x 10-6

0

1.787

1.787

5

1.519

1.519

10

1.307

1.307

20

1.002

1.004

30

0.798

0.801

40

0.653

0.658

50

0.547

0.553

60

0.467

0.475

70

0.404

0.413

80

0.355

0.365

90

0.315

0.326

100

0.282

0.294

  • 1 N s/m2 = 1 Pa s = 10 poise = 1,000 milliPa s
  • 1 m2/s = 1 x 104 cm2/s =1 x 104 stokes = 1 x 106 centistokes

Density and Weight of Water at Known Temperature

Density and weight of water, at standard sea-level atmospheric pressure

Temperature

Density

Weight

°F/°C

grams/cm3

pounds/ft3

kilograms/liter

32°/0°

0.99987

62.416

0.999808

39.2°/4.0°

1.00000

62.424

0.999937

40°/4.4°

0.99999

62.423

0.999921

50°/10°

0.99975

62.408

0.999681

60°/15.6°

0.99907

62.366

0.999007

70°/21°

0.99802

62.300

0.997950

80°/26.7°

0.99669

62.217

0.996621

90°/32.2°

0.99510

62.118

0.995035

100°/37.8°

0.99318

61.998

0.993112

120°/48.9°

0.98870

61.719

0.988644

140°/60°

0.98338

61.386

0.983309

160°/71.1°

0.97729

61.006

0.977223

180°/82.2°

0.97056

60.586

0.970495

200°/93.3°

0.96333

60.135

0.963270

212°/100°

0.95865

59.843

0.958593

Heat of Vaporization of Water — Experimental Data from Dortmund Data Bank

Engineering Properties of Water

Property of Water

0° C

20° C

40° C

60° C

80° C

100° C

Units

Density

999.84

998.21

992.22

983.20

971.82

958.40

kg m-3

Thermal Expansion

-0.07

0.207

0.385

0.523

0.643

0.752

*10-3   K-1

Isothermal Compression
(Volume Viscosity)

5.0879

4.5895

4.4241

4.4507

4.6418

4.9015

*10-10   Pa-1

Dynamic Viscosity  

1.793

1.002

0.6532

0.4665

0.3544

0.2818

*10-3   kg m-1 s-1  (Pa s)

Kinematic Viscosity

1.787

1.004

0.658

0.475

0.365

0.294

*10-6   m2 s-1

Thermal Conductivity

561.0

598.4

630.5

654.3

670.0

679.1

*10-3   W m-1 K-1

Specific Heat
at constant pressure   Cp

4.2176

4.1818

4.1785

4.1843

4.1963

4.2159

*103    J kg-1 K-1

Specific Heat
at constant volume   Cv

*103    J kg-1 K-1

Specific Entropy   e

0

0.296

0.581

0.832

1.076

1.307

*103    J kg-1 K-1

Specific Enthalpy

0

83.8

167.6

251.5

335.3

419.1

*103    J kg-1

Saturation Vapor
Pressure

611.3

2,338.8

7,381.4

19,932

47,373

101,325

Pa

Surface Tension

75.64

72.75

69.60

66.24

62.47

58.91

*10-3   N m-1

Speed of Sound

1,403

1,481

1,526

1,552

1,555

1,543

m s-1

Pure water has it’s highest density at 4.0°C  = 1000 kg/m3.
Freezing/Melting temperature = 0.00°C   (101,325 Pa)
Boiling/Condensing temperature = 100.00°C   (101,325 Pa)
Latent heat of melting = 334 kJ/kg
Latent heat of evaporation = 2,270 kJ/kg
Molar mass = 18.01528 g/mol

Viscosity of Liquid Water in the range -8°C to 150°C

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